Lorne Michaels on 40 Years of ‘SNL': Being “‘Feared’ Was Never My Goal”

Lorne Michaels on 40 Years of ‘SNL': Being “‘Feared’ Was Never My Goal”

by Lacey Rose // The Hollywood Reporter
2/4/2015 9:30am PST

Lorne Michael, left, with five-time host Justin Timberlake
Lorne Michael, left, with five-time host Justin Timberlake
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A version of this story first appeared in the Feb. 13 issue of The Hollywood Reporter magazine.

When Saturday Night Live launched on Oct. 11, 1975, its producer, Lorne Michaels, was a 30-year-old Canadian with no live TV experience. Four decades later, he’s an institution, having outlasted multiple NBC owners and grown his creation — a 90-minute live sketch-comedy show with a new host and musical guest each week — from a counterculture upstart to a mainstream touchstone. In that time, Michaels’ imprint has stretched far beyond SNL, too, with a comedy empire that currently includes The Tonight Show, Late Night and Portlandia.

With SNL‘s star-studded 40th anniversary live special set to air on Feb. 15 on NBC, Michaels, 70, reflects on the highs and the lows, his late-night legacy and the ways in which he booked an unprecedented batch of vets, including Eddie Murphy, Will Ferrell and Dana Carvey.

How did you pick the guest list and audience for the 40th anniversary show?

The rules we used were these: Every host was invited. Every musical guest was invited. Any castmember and writer who had been here longer than a year was invited. Not everybody is going to come. The other rule we used, which was just the simplest way to go, was if people sent back their RSVP, they were in the mix of people we could write for. On the 25th anniversary — which turned out remarkably well and was the first time I thought, “I could stop now and be good” — we did mostly live moments with tape and clips. This time, we have some of that, but we’re doing more performances.

What advice would present-day you give to Lorne of season one?

Work expands to the amount of time that’s available.

NBC used to give heavy notes, including “Fire Adam Sandler!” What’s the last meaningful note you got?

There was a period under Warren Littlefield that they did a lot of testing and found that music didn’t test as well as comedy. I’d say music was for pace, and it gave us a level of coolness and relevance. So, first it was, “Could you get rid of it?” When we disagreed, it was, “Could you move it later in the show?” There was a two- or three-show period where they prevailed and it had to come after “[Weekend] Update,” which threw off the rhythm of the show. When things are going really, really well in Burbank, they tend to have more confidence in terms of making suggestions. They’re on a streak, so they want to fix us.

See More: ‘SNL’s’ Five-Timers Club: Exclusive Portraits of Alec Baldwin, Justin Timberlake, Tom Hanks and More (Photos)

You said the 25th anniversary show was the first time you felt proud of the show. What took so long?

Yeah. I used to say that on my tombstone would be the word ‘uneven’ because [the show has] never been described any other way in a review. It’s only cumulatively that you sort of go, “Oh yeah, that.” You can’t be perfect for 90 minutes. We don’t do spectacle and don’t have much of a wide shot, so when you see somebody going into lens and taking it to some level that you hadn’t seen even at dress rehearsal, it’s a magical thing. I believe there’s at least one or two of those in almost every show. But I tend to leave only seeing the mistakes or the things that didn’t quite work. Fortunately, at the end of the night, there is alcohol, and that takes away a lot of the mistakes, or at least makes you focus less on them. Then on Monday, you do it all again.

Have you given any more thought to your succession plan? Should the show go on without you?

I don’t know. I’m going to keep doing it as long as I possibly can because I love it and because it’s what I do. But there is more niche stuff [now]. Us doing “Update” and giving it 10 minutes in a 90-minute show was a big deal, but Comedy Central and Jon Stewart, none of that existed then. So things have fragmented. The thing that I always find difficult about criticism of the show is that we’re broadcast, which means there are people who like us in all 50 states. I’m incredibly proud of the show Portlandia that I do, but it’s designed for an audience that just wants that and loves that. So I don’t know how long.

See More: ‘SNL’ Castmembers: Exclusive Portraits of Mike Myers, Kristen Wiig, Andy Samberg (Photos)

What’s the sketch that made you most nervous?

Some time in the ’90s, I was overseas and there was a bunch of people who had kids there. I didn’t have kids then, but they talked about watching the show — they were baby boomers — with their kids, and I went, “Really?” I got back from the trip and we were doing a “Wayne’s World” truth-or-dare skit with Madonna, and I watched it at dress and I went, “That’s going to be a real squirm moment for parents and kids, so let’s pull that back a little bit,” which we did. So it morphed into a family show, without having to compromise that much, frankly.

Is there any sketch that you regret doing because it did push those boundaries?

We did a sketch which used the word “penis” about 60 times, and we were boycotted by the Reverend [Donald] Wildmon, and that caused a lot of sponsors to flee and all that. I don’t regret having done it, but I wish it had worked better.

Who’s the host who made you most nervous because he or she wanted to push it further than you did?

The thing about hosts is that the smart ones, and there are mostly those, know that we know this room better. Sometimes somebody is determined to do something because they feel it’s bold or it goes after something that they really feel should be dealt with, and you’ll say, “I’m not sure it will play. We can still do it if you like, but you’ll see how you feel at dress.” Things can feel wrong or inappropriate, not because they’re shocking but because they’re not for this room. There’s a formality to the show, weirdly, and when people betray that in some way or turn it into something that it’s not, the audience reaction is not good.

Any examples come to mind?

When Sinead O’Connor tore up the picture of the Pope, you could hear a pin drop. I didn’t know it was coming, obviously, because at dress, she had held up a picture of Balkan orphans, which I thought was really meaningful and what she wanted to do. I’m sort of all right with people taking chances and risks and all that, but I think everybody from the beginning has known that we were on the honor system, we went live and there was an understanding of trust that we had built up at the network that we would play by the rules, which we have. So I think most people don’t want to be the person [who defies that trust]. They had that unfortunate thing with [castmember] Charlie Rocket [who got fired for saying “f—” on the show], which was during the period I wasn’t there. It wasn’t like it was bold or it wasn’t like there was any shortage of places that you couldn’t hear that language.

See More: ‘SNL': 14 Celebs Who Should Host for the First Time in 2015

If you could get a do-over on any one season, which would you choose?

1985 [Michaels’ first year back after a five-year hiatus]. I wanted to recapture what [we had had]. Dan Aykroyd was 22 [in 1975], I believe, and so was Laraine Newman. I think Bill Murray was, too. Gilda [Radner] and John [Belushi] were like 24. I was 30, Chevy [Chase] was 31. … We were just younger, and so I wanted to get back to that and I maybe went too young. I think it wasn’t thought through as much as I would have liked it to have been. But good things came out of that season, and then we adjusted the following year.

Even the best guts in the business can miss. Whom did you overlook that you kicked yourself over later?

Stephen Colbert and Steve Carell auditioned. There were lots of people who you’d see how brilliant they were, but you knew on some level that it wasn’t going to work. Lisa Kudrow gave a brilliant audition, but it was at the time when it was Jan Hooks and Nora [Dunn]. I wasn’t at the Jim Carrey audition, but somebody who was there said, “I don’t think Lorne would like it,” and they were probably wrong, but it doesn’t matter. Or maybe they were right — who knows? No one gets it all right.

See More: ‘SNL’s’ All-Star Writers: Seth Meyers, Conan O’Brien, Sarah Silverman Reunite (Photos)

You’re in a tricky spot: The better your castmembers do, the more likely you are to lose them. How do you advise people on the right time to leave?

The clumsy metaphor I like to use is you build a bridge to the next thing, and when it’s solid enough, you walk across. You can’t just react to the first thing, because it’s not solid enough yet. So, for someone like Kristen [Wiig], God bless her, she did Bridesmaids, which was a huge hit, and then she came back and did another season. Will Ferrell did the same. They also have a pact with the people who watch the show: They were there, they loved you at the beginning, they told everyone else about you and they showed up for everything you did. So you have to make sure that you honor that because if you don’t, you look as if you’re just about ambition, which there is more than enough of in the real world. And we don’t represent only the real world; we represent some level of what you hope people would be like.

What about you as a boss?

Beloved. (Laughs.) No, I can be unbelievably rough on people, which sometimes is just the pressure spilling over. Everybody works so hard and nobody wants to let down everyone else.

Some of the cast has said you’ve mellowed. Fair?

It would depend on who you ask. (Laughs.) For some people, I realize that that’s not the most effective way to encourage. I’m not quite like J.K. [Simmons] is in Whiplash, but I can be direct. Sometimes people don’t hear it unless you’re more blunt. But just because you’re rough on yourself doesn’t mean you can be rough on others, so I’m much more aware of that than I was when I was very young.

Which surprises you more: that presidential candidates come on or that Al Franken is a senator?

It is stunning that Al is there, but he’s certainly smart enough and certainly cared enough about it and was passionate enough about it when he was here. I think the times have changed for the better. When you see even Sarah [Palin] … It’s one of the things that we’re proudest of: that this is a country that allows that level of disrespect and that people accept it as part of what we do. The Charlie Hebdo thing brought it into clearer relief, where you went, “Oh, right.” And not to get into the issue of whether or not people should portray this or that … but people just accept that that’s part of what running for anything in America is. I think it probably was always there, but we amplify it a little bit.

There are people who would call you one of the most feared men in Hollywood.

“Feared” was never my goal. “Funny” might have been. But I think you get wise, and I think you also get way more forgiving.

THR.com will be rolling out SNL-related content from THR’s special issue leading up to NBC’s 40th anniversary broadcast on Sunday, Feb. 15. Keep checking back for more.

VIDEO: Human-Robot Choreography Marries Modern Dance and Machinery

Human-Robot Choreography Marries Modern Dance and Machinery

Choreographer Huang Yi’s dance partner is neither classically trained, naturally graceful, nor human. In the past few years, we’ve witnessed a fair share of dexterous robots and diva drones. Nevertheless, Huang’s performance differentiates itself with an good old-fashioned pull on the heartstrings. Known as KUKA, his robot isn’t just a coworker—he’s Huang’s childhood dream, realized with the help of German industrial engineering, and programmed by the artist himself.

Next week, Huang and KUKA will perform their award winning duet of modern dance and mechanical engineering on the stage of 3-Legged Dog Art and Technology Center (3LD). Following the first official performance of Huang Yi & KUKA at Ars Electronic in 2013, the pair became a part of 3LD’s Artist Residency and 3LD/3D+ programs, and were able to expand their show into a full-length production. Throughout the performance, KUKA responds fluidly (by robot standards, at least) to Bach’s “Parita for solo violin and original additions” by Ryoichi Kurokawa. As the dance progresses, Huang and KUKA slip in and out of sync, mirroring the mutable relationship between man and machine.

Huang Yi & KUKA opens on February 11 and runs until February 17. Learn more about the Huang, KUKA, and their daring performance on Huang Yi’s artist’s page and the 3LD’s website.

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Japanese Dance Company Choreographs Performance With Drones

11 things humans do that dogs hate

There are many ways you can drive a dog nuts — and you probably aren’t even aware of them. So if you want to be your dog’s best friend, find out how you can fix your annoying habits.

Sometimes, dogs get impatient with our mixed signals. Don’t you want to do better? (Photo: Hannamariah/Shutterstock)

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Dogs try to be our best friends, but boy do we ever make it difficult sometimes. Here are some of the things we do that might make dogs question whether they want to remain best buds or cut ties completely

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Using words more than body language
We’re a vocal species. We love to chatter away, even at our pets, who can’t understand the vast majority of what we’re saying. Dogs might be able to deduce what a few key words mean — walk, treat, toy, off — and maybe even learn hundreds of words as some border collies have done. But they can’t understand human language. What they rely on to figure out what we mean is our body language. Dogs have evolved to be expert readers of the human body and can figure out what you’re thinking and feeling before you even realize you’re thinking and feeling it. But we can easily send mixed signals if we are only paying attention to what our mouths are saying and not what our bodies are saying. If you go to any beginning dog training class, you’ll see plenty of people saying one thing, doing another, and a confused dog trying to figure out what in the world is wanted of them. For instance, telling a dog to “stay” while leaning forward toward the dog and holding out a hand like a traffic cop is, in body language, actually inviting the dog to come toward you. But when the dog does, she gets reprimanded for breaking her stay command. It’s all so confusing!
A great experiment (and something that will probably have your dog sighing with relief) is to try to spend a whole day not saying a word to your dog, but communicating only with your body. You’ll realize just how much you “talk” with your body without realizing it, how to use your movements and body position to get the response you need from your dog during training, and how involved a conversation can be without emitting a single sound.
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Hugging your dog
While you might love wrapping your arms around a furry canine friend, most dogs hate hugs. We as primates think hugs are awesome and express support, love, joy and other emotions through hugs. It’s totally normal to us to wrap our arms around something and squeeze, and it only means good things. But dogs did not evolve this way. Canids don’t have arms and they don’t hug. Rather than camaraderie, if a dog places a foreleg or paw on the back of another dog, this is considered an act of dominance. No matter your intentions with hugging, a dog is hardwired to view the act of hugging as you exerting your dominance. Many dogs will tolerate it with grace — the smiling face of the family golden retriever with a child’s arms wrapped around it comes to mind. But some dogs will feel threatened, fearful, or just flat out loathe the feeling — and in fact, a child grabbing a dog for a hug is why many dog bites occur. Also, the same dog that enjoys one person’s hug might react entirely differently with another family member who tries the same thing. You’d be hard-pressed to find a dog that actually enjoys or seeks out hugs.
girl hugging dog
This dog is barely tolerating a hug from the little girl. Everything about the tense mouth, eyes and ears say that this is not something the dog is enjoying, and this is a potential safety issue for the little girl. (Photo:Dwight Smith/Shutterstock)
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If you’re wondering if your dog hates your hugs, just pay attention to her body language when you go in for a cuddle. Does she tense up? Lean her head away from you? Avoid even a hint of eye contact? Lick her lips? Keep her mouth closed? Pull her ears back against her head? All of these are signs that a dog is uncomfortable. Yes, even the dog licking her lips while someone snuggles her is not showing that she is overcome with love, it is showing submissive, even nervous behavior. So next time you want to go in for a hug, pay very close attention to whether or not the dog is okay with it. After all, you’re putting your face right next to a set of sharp teeth.
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Petting a dog’s face or patting her head
Do you like to be patted on the head? My guess is no. Having someone reach out and tap us on the head, no matter how lovingly, is not something most of us enjoy. It’s annoying at best and painful at worst. And we really don’t want the hands of strangers reaching toward our face. If someone were to reach their hand toward your face, I’m guessing your reaction would be to pull your head back and lean away, and get a little tense about the invasion of personal space. Yet most humans think that dogs like being patted on the head. The reality is that while many dogs will put up with this if it’s someone they know and trust, most dogs don’t enjoy it. You may notice that even the loving family dog might lean away slightly when you reach for her face to pet her. She’ll let you because you’re the boss, but she doesn’t like it. It’s a personal space issue for dogs just as much as it is for us. This is why responsible parents teach their children to gently pet a dog’s back or rear, but don’t pat, and definitely don’t go for the dog’s face. If you really want to reward your dog for being awesome, don’t bang on their head, but give them a rub on their rear end right by the tail. They’ll thank you for it!
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Walking up to a strange dog while looking her in the eye
We all know how powerful eye contact is. While we view steady eye contact as important, as a sign of trustworthiness or focus, we have to also be aware that eye contact can feel unnerving, uncomfortable and domineering. It’s creepy when a stranger looks us in the eye without breaking contact, especially as they’re approaching. It’s clear their attention is zeroed in, but what is their intention? We have to read the rest of their face for the cues. Eye contact is part of establishing dominance for many species, and in humans, we can use the tiniest of details about the rest of the face — the softness or hardness of the muscles around the eyes and mouth — to determine if the stare is friendly or not. And even then, it’s still creepy to have a stranger stare at us! It feels the same way for dogs. When you look a strange dog right in the eye, unblinking, you might be smiling and trying to warm up to them but the dog is probably reading it as an act of dominance or even aggression. They might display a submissive response — looking away, doing a little wiggle for pets, rolling over onto their backs — or they might start backing up and barking. Either way, for most dogs, a stranger looking it right in the eye while approaching is not a comfortable situation.
If you want to say hello to a new dog in a way that is comfortable for both of you, approach with your body angled slightly (not with your shoulders squared toward the dog), your eyes slightly averted, and speak quietly with a gentle voice. All these body language cues of friendship will help a dog understand you mean no harm. The dog might still want nothing to do with you, but at least you didn’t approach in a scary way that could cause a defensive or aggressive reaction.
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Not providing structure and rules
Dogs want, need, and love having rules. You might think having strict rules makes life boring or unhappy for your dog. But dogs really want to know what’s what according to their leader. And really, it’s not so hard to relate as humans. Children thrive when they have a consistent set of rules to follow, and they do less well in environments that provide them a free-for-all. Think about polite, well-balanced kids you know, and the spoiled kids who lack social skills or throw temper tantrums when they don’t get what they want. Which set of kids are the ones with consistently enforced rules and boundaries? And which set tends to be most consistently happy? With dogs, it’s pretty much the same thing. Rules make life a lot more predictable, a lot less confusing and a lot less stressful.
And speaking of confusing, dogs don’t understand exceptions to rules. They don’t understand that they’re allowed to jump on you when you have leisure clothes on but not when you have work clothes on. They don’t understand that they’re allowed on the couch after a bath but not after coming in from a romp in the mud. Additionally, saying “No” for breaking a rule but not actually doing something to help the dog stop the behavior and learn the rule doesn’t count as enforcement. Dogs thrive when they know where the boundaries are, and when you spend time enforcing consistent boundaries with positive rewards, you also are building up their trust in you as a leader. You’re setting up conditions for a very happy dog!
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Forcing your dog to interact with dogs or people she clearly doesn’t like
Just like so many other social species, dogs have their favorite friends and their enemies. It is easy to see what other dogs — and people, for that matter — that a dog wants to hang out with and those with whom she’d rather not associate. Yet, there are a lot of dog owners who go into denial about this or simply fail to read the cues their dog is giving them. It is common for overly enthusiastic owners to push their dog (sometimes literally) into social situations at dog parks when their dog would rather just go home. Or they allow strangers to pet their dog even when she is showing clear signs of wanting to be left alone.
It is important to note that there is a difference between positive encouragement with shy, fearful, or reactive dogs. Taking small steps to encourage them out of their comfort zone and giving them rewards for any amount of calm, happy social behavior is important to helping them live a balanced life. But knowing the difference between gentle, rewards-based boundary pushing and forcing an interaction is vital to your dog’s safety and sanity. When dogs are pushed too far in social situations, they’re more likely to lash out with a bite or a fight. They’ve given cue after cue — ignoring, avoiding, maybe even growling — and finally they’ve had enough and give the clearest message of all with their teeth. What is possibly even worse, is that their trust in you as a protective leader is eroded, and they have an even more negative association with a park, a certain dog or person, or a general social setting. So do your dog a favor: read the body language she gives you when she doesn’t want to be around certain other individuals and don’t force it.
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Going for walks without opportunity to explore and smell
There are walks, and there are walks. It’s definitely important to have a dog that knows how to walk obediently on a leash. However, it’s also important to allow a dog to have some time to explore her surroundings while walking obediently on a leash. Dogs see with their noses, and they place as much importance on their sense of smell as we humans place on our sense of vision for interpreting the world around us. It’s probably safe to say that dogs appreciate the smell of a tree trunk the way we appreciate a beautiful sunset. Dogs loathe not being able to take in their world for at least a few minutes a day, and too often we humans are focused on going on walks for the sole purpose of exercise or potty breaks. We trudge along the same old route, often without any variety or sense of leisure, and in too much of a hurry to get back home again.
dog smelling grass
The sense of smell is how a dog takes in the world, and sometimes they’re simply desperate for a chance to take a good sniff. (Photo:Csehak Szabolcs /Shutterstock)
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Do your dog a favor and dedicate one of your daily walks to having a “smell walk” — going slow and letting your dog take in the world with her nose. Go somewhere entirely new, explore a different neighborhood or trail, let your dog sniff at a spot until she gets her fill, even if it’s for minutes at a time before moving forward. For helping your dog know the difference between a walk where she should be obedient and stay beside you, and a walk where she is free to explore, you can have a special backpack or harness that you use only for smell walks. Just make sure it is something very different from your usual collar and leash set-up so the different purpose for the walk is obvious to your dog. These walks are a wonderful opportunity for your dog to get some of the mental and sensory stimulation that keeps life interesting for her.
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Keeping a tight leash, literally
Just as dogs are amazing at reading our body language, they’re amazing at reading our tension levels even through the leash. By keeping a tight leash on a dog, you’re raising the level of stress, frustration, and excitement for your dog, and conversely, for you. I know what you might be thinking: “I don’t want to hold a tight leash, but I have to. My dog is the one pulling, not me!” But this is why it is so important to teach a dog how to walk on a slack leash.
An amazing amount of energy is transferred between you and your dog through that little strip of canvas or leather. By keeping a loose leash, you’re letting your dog know that everything is fine and dandy, that there’s no reason to be worried or tense. With a slack leash you’re saying to your dog that you are calm and have everything under control so your dog is free to be calm as well. On the other hand, by keeping a tight leash you’re sending a message to your dog that you’re tense, nervous, on alert, ready to fight or fly, and your dog responds in kind. Just as you don’t like your dog pulling you around, it doesn’t feel good to your dog to constantly be pulled and thus cued to be on alert. They’re also well-aware that they can’t get away from you even if they think they need to. A dog that walks on a tight leash is more apt to bark or be reactive in even the most mild of social situations. But a dog that can walk on a slack leash is more likely to be calm. This is a difficult thing to master, and something the majority of dog owners can commiserate about, but it is so important to having pleasant walks with a relaxed dog.
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Being tense
Tension on the leash isn’t the only way a dog can pick up how you’re feeling. You can tell when a person you’re around is feeling tense, even if you don’t realize it. Dogs have the same ability. The more stressed and wound-up you are, the more stressed and wound-up your dog is. And dogs, just like us, don’t like that feeling. You might roll your eyes, but the next time your dog is acting frustrated and tense, check in with yourself — have you been feeling that way for the last few minutes, for the last few hours, or the last few days? Your dog might just be acting as your mirror. If you need a reason to meditate, helping your dog calm down is a great one.
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Being boring
You know that feeling of being stuck hanging around someone who is totally boring? Think back: remember having to be with your parents while they ran grown-up errands? None of which revolved around a toy store or park, of course. Remember that feeling of barely being able to contain yourself, of wanting to squirm and groan and complain. You couldn’t take part in the adult conversation, which was boring anyway, and you were told to sit still and hush. But oh boy did you ever want to just moooove! Just run around the block or something to break the monotony. That’s how your dog feels when you’re busy being that boring grown-up. Dogs abhor it when we’re boring. And it’s hard not to be! We get home from work and we want to unwind, to get a few chores done, to make dinner and sack out on the couch and relax. But that’s about the most annoying thing we could do to our dogs who have been waiting around all day for us to finally play with them.
If your dog is making trouble — getting into boxes or closets, eating shoes or chewing on table legs — she’s basically showing you just how incredibly bored she is. Luckily, there is a quick and easy solution to this: training games. Teaching your dog a new trick, working on old tricks, playing a game of “find it” with a favorite toy, or going out and using a walk as a chance to work on urban agility, are all ways to stimulate both your dog’s mind and body. An hour of training is worth a couple hours playing a repetitive game of fetch in terms of wearing a dog out. While of course exercise and walks are important, adding in some brain work will make your dog happy-tired. Even just 15-30 minutes of trick training a day will make a big difference.
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Teasing
This should be obvious, and we won’t spend too much time on it. But it’s worth pointing out because too many people still think it’s funny. Don’t bark at a dog as you pass it on the street. Don’t wave or talk to a dog that is barking at you from behind a window or door. Don’t pull on a dog’s tail. The list can go on and on, but in short, don’t do something you know makes a dog mad just because you think it’s funny. It’s not funny to the dog and can lead to some serious behavioral problems — and, perhaps deservedly, you getting to sport some new dog-shaped teeth marks.
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Further Reading
If you’d like to learn more about how to be a better friend to your dog, try these great book recommendations. For example, in “The Other End of the Leash: Why We Do What We Do Around Dogs” professional behaviorist and trainer Patricia B. McConnell goes into excellent detail about the species differences between primates and canids and why dogs don’t appreciate our hugs, as well as many other great ways of understanding a dog’s perspective about the world. Meanwhile, in “Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know” by Alexandra Horowitz, you’ll get a chance to see the world through a dog’s eyes and learn so much about body language, the importance of scent, and other things that will help you know more about what your dog wants out of life. And for understanding more about how clicker training and training games can help you and your dog get along better, try “Reaching the Animal Mind: Clicker Training and What It Teaches Us About All Animals” by Karen Pryor. Follow the link for these and more great reads.
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Read the original article here: http://www.mnn.com/family/pets/stories/11-things-humans-do-that-dogs-hate#main-content#ixzz3R0fkEJKr

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Love this article!!! MNN.com posts some really stellar stuff; I just had to share this article of theirs with you because if it could pump me up to want to continue to improve my relationship with my own four-legged companion, then mayhaps it will have the same effect on you, as well… :)

with passion & gratitude — jennifer